Tuesday, April 05, 2005


German  Pangermanismus  or  Alldeutschtum  movement whose goal was the political unification of all people speaking German or a Germanic language. Some of its adherents favoured the unification of only the German-speaking people of central and eastern Europe and the Low Countries (Dutch and Flemish being regarded as Germanic dialects). The movement had its roots in the desire for German unification stimulated

Hohenlohe-ingelfingen, Kraft, Prinz Zu

The son of Adolf, Prinz zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, he joined the Prussian Guard Artillery in 1845. During the Seven Weeks' War, Hohenlohe led the Guard Reserve Artillery with great success against the Austrian right wing in the decisive Prussian victory of Königgr

Monday, April 04, 2005

Military Aircraft, Bombers

The Stuka dive-bomber was used to great effect during the invasions of Poland, France, and the Low Countries in 1939–40, but its slow speed rendered it vulnerable to fighter attack. The Germans' principal bombers of the Battle of Britain were the twin-engined Heinkel He 111, Dornier Do 17, and Ju 88. The Ju 88 was fast, with a top speed of 280 miles per hour, but it carried a modest bombload; the other

Sunday, April 03, 2005

Nova Lima

City, east-central Minas Gerais estado (“state”), Brazil. It lies along the Cristais River at 2,444 feet (745 m) above sea level. Nova Lima was made the seat of a municipality in 1891 and became a city in 1936. It is known for its Mineração Morro Velho (“Old Mountain Mine”), British-owned from 1834 until 1959, when it was sold to a Brazilian concern. The air-cooled shaft, which penetrates 8,501 feet (2,591 m), is one of the deepest

China, The Han dynasty

Translations of historical source material can be found in Édouard Chavannes (ed. and trans.), Les Mémoires historiques de Se-ma Ts'ien, new ed. 6 vol. (1967–69); Homer H. Dubs (ed. and trans.), The History of the Former Han Dynasty, 3 vol. (1938–55); Esson M. Gale (ed. and trans.), Discourses on Salt and Iron (1931, reprinted 1973); Burton Watson (ed. and trans.), Records of the Grand Historian of China, 2 vol. (1961); Hsien-yi Yang and Gladys Yang (trans.), Selections from Records of the Historian (1979); and A.F.P. Hulsewé, Remnants of Ch'in Law (1985). Works on specific topics of Han history include Hans Bielenstein, The Restoration of the Han Dynasty, 4 vol. (1953–79); Michael Loewe, Records of Han Administration, 2 vol. (1967), Everyday Life in Early Imperial China During the Han Period 202 B.C.–A.D. 220 (1968, reissued 1973), and Crisis and Conflict in Han China 104 B.C. to A.D. 9 (1974); T'ung-tsu Ch'u, Han Social Structure (1972); A.F.P. Hulsewé, Remnants of Han Law (1955); Cho-yun Hsu, Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy, 206 B.C.–A.D. 220 (1980); and Ying-shih Yu, Trade and Expansion in Han China (1967). Zhongsbu Wang, Han Civilization (1982), is a survey of archaeological investigations of the Han dynasty.

Saturday, April 02, 2005

Tyrone, Conn O'neill, 1st Earl Of

Conn, who was related through his mother to the Earl of Kildare (Fitzgerald), became chief of the Tyrone branch of the O'Neills (Cinel Eoghain) about 1520. When Kildare became viceroy in 1524, O'Neill consented to act as his swordbearer in ceremonies

Friday, April 01, 2005

Fisher, Andrew

Fisher emigrated from England to Queensland in 1885, worked as a coal miner and union leader, and was elected to the state legislature in 1893. In 1901 he served in the

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Farmer–labor Party

An offshoot, the National Farmer–Labor Party, nominated P.P. Christensen in the 1920 presidential election. Lacking adequate finances and organization, the party won few votes and expired in 1923.

Wednesday, March 30, 2005

Danish Language

Danish  Dansk  the official language of Denmark, spoken there by more than 5 million people. Danish belongs to the East Scandinavian branch of North Germanic languages. It began to separate from the other Scandinavian languages, to which it is closely related, about AD 1000. The oldest Danish records are runic inscriptions (c. AD 250–800) found from Jutland to southern Sweden; the earliest manuscripts